Market Data

The term “market data” in Strata refers to any value which is observable in the market or is derived solely from observable market data.

For example, futures prices are observable market data and can be looked up directly from a provider of market data such as Bloomberg or Reuters. By contrast, a calibrated yield curve is an example of non-observable market data as it is derived from observable data such as quoted rates and futures prices.

Measures such as present value or PV01 are distinguished from market data because they are derived from portfolio data as well as market data.


In Strata, a market data container holds a set of market data. There are two main containers:

Single-scenario Market Data

The MarketData interface is the main container for market data when not processing scenarios. It is tied to a single valuation date.

The API is map-like, providing the ability to access each piece of market data using an identifier, and to return a new MarketData instance with a different market data value:

public interface MarketData {

  boolean containsValue(MarketDataId<?> id) {
  <T> T getValue(MarketDataId<T> id);
  <T> Optional<T> findValue(MarketDataId<T> id);
  <T> MarketData withValue(MarketDataId<T> id, T value);

The identifier MarketDataId is an interface with implementations such as CurveId and SwaptionVolatilitiesId. Applications can write their own identifiers and use them to add additional market data.

For example, to obtain a Curve from MarketData:

MarketData marketData = loadMarketData();
Curve curve = marketData.getValue(CurveId.of("DefaultGroup", "USD-Discounting"));

Multi-scenario Market Data

The ScenarioMarketData interface is the main container for market data when using scenarios. The simplest way to think of it is as a list of MarketData instances, one for each scenario, however the API does not expose the data in that way. Instead, the API is map-like, but with each piece of data being a “box” that provides the scenario values for that identifier:

public interface ScenarioMarketData {

  boolean containsValue(MarketDataId<?> id) {
  <T> MarketDataBox<T> getValue(MarketDataId<T> id);
  <T> Optional<MarketDataBox<T>> findValue(MarketDataId<T> id);
  <T> MarketData withValue(MarketDataId<T> id, T value);

Each MarketDataBox contains the value for each scenario. The box API exposes the data by scenario index - MarketDataBox.getValue(int scenarioIndex).

public interface MarketDataBox<T> {

  T getValue(int scenarioIndex) {

Wrapping the data in a box allows a simple interface for looking up market data that hides whether there is one value or multiple values. Without the box every function that uses or manipulates market data would have to handle the two cases separately.

Using a box allows scenario data to be stored more efficiently in some cases. For example, curve data for multiple scenarios can include one copy of the x-axis data which is used in all scenarios. If a separate curve were stored for each scenario that data would be unnecessarily stored multiple times. Similarly, if the same value is to be used for all scenarios, it can be stored once.

There are three ways to access the scenarios in ScenarioMarketData. The first way is to query the box and use MarketDataBox.getValue(int scenarioIndex). This is simple, exposing the internal data structure of ScenarioMarketData.

The second way is to convert the box to a special multi-scenario data type. This is useful when processing market data in bulk. For example, where there is dedicated pricing code to price a single instrument against many scenarios in a single go. The multi-scenario data type is extracted using a ScenarioMarketDataId.

public interface ScenarioMarketData {

  <T,U> U getScenarioValue(ScenarioMarketDataId<T, U> id) {

The final way is the simplest when processing once scenario at a time. It provides a MarketData view over ScenarioMarketData for a single scenario:

public interface ScenarioMarketData {

  Stream<MarketData> scenarios();
  MarketData scenario(int scenarioIndex);


The MarketDataFactory interface provides the ability to build market data.

The MarketDataFactory API provides two methods that build the data from the following inputs:


The MarketDataFactory API methods take in a set of requirements that specify what market data is needed. The requirements consist of a set of identifiers, of type MarketDataId, that specify the data.

These requirements can be built manually. However, if the intention is to use the CalculationRunner, then they can be obtained from CalculationTasks. This queries the calculation functions to determine the market data that is needed to perform the calculation.


The MarketDataFactory API methods take in a MarketDataConfig instance providing the necessary configuration.

Configuration is separate from the requirements - the configuration is normally determined up front before the system starts, whereas the requirements could be based on the needs of a specific set of trades.

Examples of MarketDataConfig include how to build curves and root finding tolerances for calibration.

Input data

The MarketDataFactory API methods take in a ScenarioMarketData instance representing known data. Any data that is present on input will not be built or rebuilt.

Reference data is provided to the factory.

Scenario definition

The ScenarioDefinition is used to specify how to create the scenarios. Each scenario is typically a “bump” or “shift” to the base set of data. The mechanism supports bumping both observable market data and calibrated data.


The default MarketDataFactory implementation uses two providers of external data:

These interfaces can be implemented to call Bloomberg, Reuters or any other data system.


Consider the case where the requirements specify the need for a curve with the name ‘USD-Discounting’. There are two possibilities:

  • The curve is already in the input market data, in which case it will be used.
  • The curve is not present in the input market data, in which case it will be built.

If the curve has to be built, then a MarketDataFunction will be found and used to create the data. The MarketDataFunction for curves uses the MarketDataConfig to obtain a definition of the curve. The configuration specifies the observable market data that the curve is based on, such as quotes for FRAs and Swaps. The factory will then recursively try to find the quotes, either from the input market data or by calling ObservableDataProvider.

Once all the observable data has been obtained, the curve can be calibrated. The factory will return a ScenarioMarketData instance combining the input data and the calibrated data. The curve will be available using the same identifier that was specified in the requirements.